This interactive chart highlights referral trends by provider types for cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal), and the change over time in the percentage of patients treated by each provider type (nearest trust, other trust and Independent Sector Treatment Centre (ISTC)).

The chart shows a decline in referrals to the trust nearest to the patient, and an increase in the use of ISTCs.

This chart is taken from the report: Choosing the place of care: the effect of patient choice on treatment location in England, 2003 to 2011 (Nuffield Trust, November 2012).

This report forms part of a three-year joint research programme between the Institute for Fiscal Studies and the Nuffield Trust: Understanding competition and choice in the NHSThis will establish a long-term expertise in the use of competition and market mechanisms in health care in England and internationally.

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